Saikinne, Si'-ke-na, Apache name for Pima, Papago, and Maricopa.
Tah'b,a, Yavapai name.
Texpamais, Maricopa name.
Tono-oohtam, own name, signifying "people of the desert."
Vidshi itikapa, Tonto name.
Connections.- The Papago belong to the Piman-branch of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock and stand very close to the Pima.
Location.- In the territory south and southeast of the Gila River, especially south of Tucson the main and tributary valleys of the Santa Cruz River; and extending west; and southwest across the desert waste known as the Papagueria, into Sonora, Mexico.
Subdivisions and Villages
Aenchin, location uncertain.
Alcaide, probably in Pima County.
Ana, probably in Pima County.
Anicam, probably in Pima County.
Areitorae, south of Sonorita, Sonora, Mexico.
Ati, on the west bank of Rio Altar, between Uquitoa and Tubutama,
just south of the Arizona boundary.
Babasaqui, probably Papago, 3 miles above Imuris, between
Cocospera and Magdalena, Sonora, Mexico.
Bacapa, in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, slightly southeast of
Baipia, slightly northwest of Caborca, probably on the Rio Altar,
northwestern Sonora, Mexico.
Bajio, location uncertain.
Batequi east of the Rio Altar in northwestern Sonora, Mexico.
Boca dei Arroyo, probably in Pima County.
Caborica, on the Gila River.
Caca Chimir, probably in Pima County.
Cahuabi, in Arizona near the Sonora border.
Canoa, between Tubac and San Xavier del Bac, on Rio Santa Cruz.
Casca, probably in Pima County.
Charco, probably identical with Chioro.
Chiora, probably in Pima County.
Chuba, location uncertain.
Coca, location uncertain.
Comohuabi, in Arizona on the border of Sonora, Mexico.
Cops, west of the Rio San Pedro, probably in the vicinity of the
present Arivaca, southwest of Tubac.
Cubac, in the neighborhood of San Francisco Atl, west from the
Cuitoat, between San Xavier del Bac and the Gila River.
Cujant, in northwest Sonora, between the mouth of the Rio Gila
Cumaro, southern Arizona near the Sonora border.
Elogio, probably in Pima County.
Fresnal, probably in Pima County.
Guadalupe, about 10 leagues south of Areitorae.
Gubo, probably Papago, 13 leagues east of Sonorita, just below
the Arizona boundary.
Guitciabaqui, on the west bank of the Santa Cruz River, near the
Juajona, near San Xavier del Bac, southern Arizona.
Junostaca, near San Xavier del Bac.
Macombo, probably in Pima County.
Mata, probably Papago, north of Caborica.
Mesquite, probably in Pima County.
Milpais, location uncertain.
Nariz, probably in Pima County.
Oapars, in Arizona between San Xavier del Bac and the Gila River.
Ocaboa, location uncertain.
Oisur, on the Santa Cruz River, 5 or 6 leagues north of San
Xavier del Bac, southern Arizona.
Onia, probably in Pima County.
Ooltan, in northwest Sonora, Mexico, 3 leagues northwest of
Otean, location uncertain.
Perigua, Arizona, south of the Gila River.
Perinimo, probably in Pima County.
Piato, probably the same as Soba, in the region of Tubutama and
Caborica, Sonora, Mexico.
Pitic, on the Rio Altar, northwest Sonora.
Poso Blanco, in Arizona south of the Gila River.
Poso Verde, south of the Arizona-Sonora boundary, opposite Oro
Purificacion, probably Papago, near the Arizona-Sonora boundary,
12 leagues from Agua Escondida, probably in a southeasterly
Quitovaquita, on the headwaters of Rio Salado of Sonora, near the
Arizona-Sonora boundary line.
Raton, location uncertain.
San Bonifacio, probably Papago, south of the Gila River between
San Angelo and San Francisco, in the present Arizona.
San Cosme, probably Papago, directly north of San Xavier del Bac,
on the Santa Cruz River, Ariz.
San Ignacio, with Pima, on the north bank of Rio San Ignacio,
latitude 30- 45' N., longitude 111x W., Sonora, Mexico.
San Ildefonso, 4 leagues northwest of Caborica, Sonora, Mexico.
San Lazaro, probably Papago, on the Rio Santa Cruz in longitude
110- 30' W., just below the Arizona-Sonora boundary.
San Luis Babi, in northwest Sonora, Mexico, between Busanic and
San Martin, probably Papago, on the Gila River, west of the Great
Bend of the Colorado.
San Rafael, in southern Arizona near the headwaters of the Rio
Salado of Sonors.
Santa Barbara, probably Papago, 4 miles southwest of Pusanic,
near the head-waters of the north branch of the Rio Altar, in
Santa Rosa, south of the Gila River and west of Tucson.
Saric, probably Papago, on the west bank of Rio Altar, in
northern Sonora, Mexico.
Saucita, in southern Arizona.
Shuuk, or Pima, on the Gila River Reservation, southern Arizona.
Sierra Blanca, probably in Pima County.
Soba, a large body of Papago, including the villages of
Carborica, Batequi, Mats, Pitic, and San Ildefonso.
Sonoita, on the headwaters of the Rio Salado of Sonora, just
below the Arizona-Sonora boundary.
Tachilta, in southern Arizona or northern Sonora.
Tacquison, on the Arizona-Sonora boundary.
Tecolote, in southwestern Pima County, Ariz., near the Mexican
Tubasa, probably on the Rio Santa Cruz River between San Xavier
del Bac and the Gila River, southern Arizona.
Tubutama, on the eastern bank of the northern branch of the Rio
Altar, in northwest Sonora, Mexico.
Valle, probably in Pima County.
Zuniga, probably Papago, in northwest Sonora, Mexico.
History.- Father Eusebio Kino was probably the first while man to visit the Papago, presumably on his first expedition in 1694. Their subsequent history has been nearly the same as that of the Pima, except that they were not brought quite as much in contact with the Whites.
Population.- Mooney (1928) places the number of Papago at 6,000 in 1680. In 1906 they were reported as follows: Under the Pima School Superintendent, 2,233; under the farmer at San Xavier, 523 allottees on the reservation and 2,225 in Pima County. In addition, 859 Papago were officially reported in Sonora, Mexico, in 1900, probably an underestimate. In 1910, 3,798 were reported in the United States, but the Report of the United States Indian Office for 1923 gives 5,672; the 1930 census, 5,205; and the Indian Office Report for 1937, 6,305.
Sells Tohono O'odham Reservations
Ak-Chin Indian Community
The Tohono O'odham Community Action Project
Mission Churches of the Sonoran Desert- The Tohono O'Odham
National Park Service: The Tohono O'odham
P.O. Box 837
Sells Arizona 85634
The ethnobiology of the Papago Indians, by Edward F. Castetter and Ruth
QH1 .N59 v.4:3
The Papago and Pima Indians of Arizona / by Ruth Underhill ; illustrated
with photographs from the Bureau of American Ethnology and drawings by
Velino Herrera (Ma-pe-wi).
E99.P25 U519 1979
The Papago Indians of Arizona and their relatives the Pima. Illustrated
with photos. from the Bureau of American Ethnology and drawings by Velino
Herrera (Ma-pe-wi) Edited by Willard W. Beatty.
E99 .P25 U519x
Social organization of the Papago Indians / by Ruth Murray Underhill
E99 .P25 U53 1969
The desert people; a study of the Papago Indians by Alice Joseph, Rosamond
B. Spice [and] Jane Chesky.
E99 .P25 J6
An analysis of Papago communities, 1900-1920 / by Richard Donald
E99.P25 J5x 1969
The autobiography of a Papago woman / by Ruth Underhill.
GN2 .A22 no.46
Of earth and little rain : the Papago Indians / by Bernard L.
Fontana ; with photographs by John P. Schaefer.
E99 .P25 F65x
The Papago Indian Reservation and the Papago people.
E99.P25 P25x 1975
The Papago Indians of Arizona; [by] William H. Kelly. The Papago tribe
of Arizona [by]
Bernard L. Fontana. Commission findings.
E99 .P25 P35 v.3