The idea of the Indian Industrial School was first developed in the 1860s. Richard Henry Pratt was known as the father of the non-reservation industrial school establishing the most popular type of institution in the federal Indian school system. The Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania was established in 1879 and the Hampton school in Oklahoma was established in 1878. They both became the standard for the development of the Indian Schools.
The Phoenix Indian School opened in September of 1891. The assimilation era of the school lasted from 1891-1935. It ended with the progression of the New Deal legislation of the 1930s. The schools were established to assimilate the Indians to the ways of the white man.
"It's cheaper to educate Indians than to kill them."
--Indian Commissioner Thomas Morgan speaking at the establishment of the Phoenix Indian School in 1891
Lindauer, Owen. Not for school, but for life : lessons from the historical
archaeology of the Phoenix Indian School .
http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/phoenix/index.htmlOnline. Accessed 1/01/00. See book below.
Read this Book Online from netLibrary! Go
to Computer File to access.
Trennert, Robert A. The Phoenix Indian School : forced assimilation in Arizona, 1891-1935. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, c1988.---
Bibliography of Indian Boarding Schools: Approximately 1875 TO 1940
by Labriola Center
The Phoenix Indian School : forced assimilation in Arizona, 1891-1935
/ by Robert A. Trennert, Jr.
E97.6 .P4 T74 1988
Not for school, but for life : lessons from the historical archaeology
of the Phoenix Indian School / by Owen Lindauer ; with a foreword by Peterson
Zah ; and a contribution by Todd Bostwick.
E97.6.P4 L55 1997
Indian communities in action, by Robert A. Roessel. Contributing chapter
authors: Peterson Zah [and others] edited by Broderick H. Johnson.
ASU 2.2:A 27
Battlefield And Classroom; Four Decades With The American Indian, 1867-1904.
/ Edited And With An Introd. By Robert M. Utley.
E97.6 .C2 P89 1964
Robert A. Trennert collection, 1889-1935 [manuscript] (Wrote Book on
Phoenix Indian School)
FM MSS 40
Indian-School at Phoenix, Arizona, 3-27-1894
Indian-School at Phoenix, Arizona, 1-30-1891
Biography of Amanda Chingren, 1865-?
FB BIO C-47
Biography of Jean Chaudhuri.
FB BIO CHA,JEA
Dorothy and Lowell Weeks Small Manuscript Collection.
Goldwater Indians Photograph Collection (GI-)contains images of the Phoenix Indian School. Located at the Arizona Historical Foundation.