Tu'-ba-na, Taos name.
Tu'-ven, Isleta and Sandia name.
Connections.—They constituted a major division of the Tanoan linguistic family, itself a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock.
Location.—Along the valley of the Rio Grande in the northern part of New Mexico, except for one pueblo, Hano, in the Hopi country, Arizona.
They consisted of two main branches, the Northern Tewa, from near Santa Fé to the mouth of the Rio Chama, including also Hano; and the Southern Tewa or Tano, from Santa Fé to the neighborhood of Golden, back from the Rio Grande.
Northern Tewa towns and villages still occupied:
Hano, the easternmost pueblo of Tusayan, Ariz.
Nambe, about 16 miles north of Santa Fé, on Nambe River, a small tributary of the Rio Grande.
San Ildefonso, near the eastern bank of the Rio Grande, about 18 miles northwest of Santa Fé.
San Juan, near the eastern bank of the Rio Grande 25 miles northwest of Santa Fé.
Santa Clara, on the western bank of the Rio Grande, about 30 miles above Santa Fé.
Tesuque, 8 miles north of Santa Fé.
History.—When Coronado passed through the southern end of Tewa territory in 1540, he found it had been nearly depopulated by the Teya, a warlike Plains tribe, perhaps Apache, about 16 years before. The Tewa were next visited by Espejo. In 1630 there were but five Southern Tewa towns remaining and those were entirely broken up during the Pueblo revolts of 1680-96, most of the Indians removing to the Hopi in Arizona, after 1694. The greater part of the remainder were destroyed by smallpox early in the nineteenth century, though there are still a few descendants of this group living in the other pueblos along the Rio Grande, particularly Santo Domingo. The history of the Northern Tewa was similar to that of the Southern but they suffered much less and remain a considerable body at the present day though with a stationary population. The Pueblo of Hano was established among the Hopi as a result of the rebellion of 1680-92.
Populations.—The population of the Northern Tewa is given as follows: In 1680, 2,200; in 1760, 1,908; in 1790-93, 980; in 1805, 929; in 1850, 2,025; in 1860, 1,161; in 1871, 979, in 1901-05, 1,200; in 1910, 968. In 1930 the entire Tanoan stock numbered 3,412. In 1937, 1,708 were returned from the Tewa excluding the Hano, which were enumerated with the Hopi.
In 1630 Benavides estimated the Southern Tewa population at 4,000; in 1680 Galisteo, probably including San Cristóbal, had an estimated population of 800 and San Marcos of 600. No later separate figures are available.
Connection in which they have become noted.—Tano, the alternative name of the Southern Tewa, has been used as a designation of the stock to which the entire group -- Tewa, Tiwa, Piro, Pecos, and Jemez -- belong, a stock now merged with the Kiowa-Tanoan.
Ethnobotany of the Tewa Indians by WILFRED WILLIAM ROBBINS, JOHN PEABODY HARRINGTON, and BARBARA FREIRE-MARRECO. Washington, GPO, 1916 Smithsonian Institute Bulletin 55
Hano, a Tewa Indian community in Arizona, by Edward P. Dozier.
The Hopi-Tewa of Arizona.by Dozier, Edward P.
E51 .C15 v.44:3
The ethnogeography of the Tewa Indians, by John Peabody Harrington
E 51 .U55 no.29 1907/1908
The Tewa world; space, time, being, and becoming in a Pueblo society.by
Ortiz, Alfonso, 1939-
E99.T35 O7 1969