According to the Handbook of American Indians (Hodge, 1907, 1910), from enyaeva, "sun," and pai, "people," and thus signifying "people of the sun," but the southeastern Yavapai interpreted it to mean "crooked-mouth people," that is, a "sulky" people who do not agree with other peoples (fide Gifford, 1936). Also called: Apache Mohaves, in Rep. Office Ind. Aff., 1869, p. 92; 1870. Apaches, by Garces in 1775-76 (Diary, p. 446, 1900); also by Spaniards. Cruzados, by Ohate in 1598 (Col. Doc. Ined., vol. 16, p. 276, 1864-84). Dil-zha, by White (MS.); Apache name meaning "Indians living where there are red ants." E-nyae-va Pai, by Ewing (1892, p. 203), meaning "sun people" because they were sun worshipers. Gohun, by Ten Kate, (1884, p. 5), Apache name. Har-dil-zhays, by White (1875 MS.), Apache name. Inya'vape, by Harrington (1908, p. 324), Walapai name. Jum-pys, by Heintzelman, (1857, p. 44) Kohenins, by Corbusier (1886, p. 276), Apache name. Ku-we-ve-ka pai-ya, by Corbusier (MS., p. 27); said to be own name, because they live in the south. Nyavapai, by Gorbusier (1886, p. 276). Taros, by Garces in 1775-76 (Diary, p. 446, 1900), Pima name. Yampaos, by Whipple (1856, p. 103).
Connections.- The Yavapai belonged to the Yuman branch of the Hokan linguistic family, their closest cultural affiliations being with the Havasupai and Walapai
Location.- In western Arizona from the Pinal and Mazatzal Mountains to the country of the Halchidhoma and Chemehuevi in the neighborhood of Colorado River and from Williams and Santa Maria Rivers, including the valleys of the smaller branches, to the neighborhood of the Gila River.
History.- Gifford (1936) states that "the earliest probable mention" of the Yavapai "is by Luxan of the Espejo expedition, who in 1582-1583 apparently visited only the country of the Northeastern Yavapai." In 1598 Marcos Farfan de los Godos met them and called them Cruzados because they wore small crosses on their heads, and in 1604 Juan de Onate also visited them, as did Father Francisco Garces in 1776, after which time contact with Europeans was pretty regular. They were removed to the Verde River Agency in May 1873. In 1875 they were placed on the San Carlos Apache Agency, but by 1900 most of the tribe had settled in part of their old home on the Verde River, including the abandoned Camp McDowell Military Reservation, which was assigned to their use, November 27, 1901, by the Secretary of the Interior, until Congress should take final action. By Executive Orderof September 15, 1903, the old reservation was set aside for their use, and the claims of the white settlers purchased under Act of April 21, 1904.
Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates 600 Yavapai in 1680. Gifford's (1936) estimate would about double that, though he does not believe they ever exceeded 1500. In 1873 they were said to number about 1,000 and in 1903 between 500 and 600. In 1906, 520 were reported, 465 at Camp McDowell and Upper Verde Valley and 55 at San Carlos. In 1910. 289 were reported by the Census, but the same year the Indian Office reported 178 under the Camp McDowell School Superintendent, 282 under the Camp Verde School, and 89 under the San Carlos School; total, 549. In 1823 the Indian Office reported 708 under the Camp Verde School and Salt River Superintendencies. In 1932 the Indian Office reported only 193, but the "Yuma Apache" would add 24. In 1937 there were 194.
Connection in which they have become noted.- (See Havasupai.) The name has been perpetuated in that of Yavapai County, Ariz.
Camp Verde Yavapai-Apache Indian Reservation
Community Profile-Arizona Department of Commerce
Fort McDowell Indian Community
Yavapai-Prescott Indian Reservation
Northeastern and western Yavapai / by E. W. Gifford.
E51 .C15 v.34:4
The southeastern Yavapai, by E.W. Gifford.
E51 .C15 v.29:3
A Study of Yavapai history / by Albert H. Schroeder.
E99 .Y5 S34 1959 v.1
Viola Jimulla : the Indian chieftess / a biography by Franklin Barnett.
E99.Y5 J563 1975
White Eyes, Long Knives and renegade Indians : an updated and revised
version of General Crook's campaign against the Yavapai and the Tonto Apache
people of central Arizona, 1872-1882 / by V. Keith Thorne
E83.88 .T56x 1993
The Yavapai of Fort McDowell : an outline of their history and culture
/ Sigrid Khera, editor.
E99 .Y5 K4x
Yavapai : the people of the red rocks, the people of the sun /
by Kate Ruland-Thorne ; [editor: Aliza Caillou]
E99.Y5 R85x 1993